At a Glance: Spreading, thicket-forming shrub with bright red stems.
|Sun/Shade Tolerance||Hydrology||Elevation Range||
full sun > 80%
mostly sunny 60%-80%
partial sun and shade 40%- 60%
mostly shady 60%-80%
full shade > 80%
Wetland Indicator Status:
FACW (facultative wetland)
|Prefers seasonally inundated soils.|
well drained soils
nutrient rich soils
nutrient poor soils
Aquatic and Wetland:
Ponds or lakes
Swales or wet ditches
Seasonally inundated areas
Marshes or swamps
Aquatic bed wetlands
Seeps, springsShorelines and Riparian:
Streams or rivers
Stream or river banks
In or near saltwater
Coastal dunes or beachesRocky or Gravelly Areas:
Slide areasSub-alpine and Alpine:
Forests and Thickets:
Forests and woods
Old growth forests
Forest edges, openings, or clearings
ThicketsMeadows and Fields:
Pastures or fields
Meadows or grassy areas
Mossy areasDisturbed Areas:
Nectar for hummingbirds
Nectar for butterflies
Host for insect larvae
Thickets and shelter
Thorny or protective cover
Birds: The berries are eaten by birds such as vireos, warblers, kingbirds, robins, flickers, flycatchers, wood ducks, grouse, band-tailed pigeons, and quail.
Insects: The nectar is used by orange sulphur and other adult butterflies. The leaves are used by spring azure and other butterfly larvae.
Mammals: The berries are eaten by mammals such as bears, foxes, skunks, and chipmunks. The wood is browsed by deer, elk, and rabbits. Beavers and muskrats use twigs to repair dams or build new dams.
|Ethnobotanical Uses and Other Facts||
Landscape Uses: Prized for the red winter twig color.
- Alden, P., D. Paulson. 1998. National Audubon Society, Field Guide to the Pacific Northwest. Chanticleer Press. Page 112.
- Guard, B.J. 1995. Wetland Plants of Oregon & Washington. Lone Pine Publishing. Page 209.
- Link, R. 1999. Landscaping for Wildlife in the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press. Page 246.
- Lyons, C., W. Merilees. Trees and Shrubs to Know in Washington and British Columbia. Lone Pine Publishing. Page 143.
- Pojar, J., A. Mackinnon. 1994. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Lone Pine Publishing. Page 98.
The landscaping and restoration information provided on this page is taken from the Starflower Foundation Image Herbarium. All photographs © Starflower Foundation unless otherwise noted.