At a Glance: Small tree, slender in form, appears thorny; bushy in the open.
|Sun/Shade Tolerance||Hydrology||Elevation Range||
full sun > 80%
mostly sunny 60%-80%
partial sun and shade 40%- 60%
mostly shady 60%-80%
full shade > 80%
Wetland Indicator Status:
FACU (facultative upland)
Up to 2500 ft in Cascades.
well drained soils
nutrient rich soils
nutrient poor soils
Aquatic and Wetland:
Ponds or lakes
Swales or wet ditches
Seasonally inundated areas
Marshes or swamps
Aquatic bed wetlands
Seeps, springsShorelines and Riparian:
Streams or rivers
Stream or river banks
In or near saltwater
Coastal dunes or beachesRocky or Gravelly Areas:
Slide areasSub-alpine and Alpine:
Forests and Thickets:
Forests and woods
Old growth forests
Forest edges, openings, or clearings
ThicketsMeadows and Fields:
Pastures or fields
Meadows or grassy areas
Mossy areasDisturbed Areas:
Nectar for hummingbirds
Nectar for butterflies
Host for insect larvae
Thickets and shelter
Thorny or protective cover
Birds: Fruit remaining on trees in winter is a preferred food of purple finches. Also evening grosbeaks, towhees, sapsuckers, woodpeckers, waxwings and grouse. Cavity nesting birds and other wildlife may nest and roost in tree cavities of large trees.
Insects: Spring azure butterfly.
Mammals: Favorite food of deer, elk and bears. Also coyotes, foxes.
|Ethnobotanical Uses and Other Facts||
Material Uses: Wood is very compact and fine grained. Sometimes used in small ornamental turnery because of toughness and brownish hue of wood.
Medicinal Uses: Bark was used, alone or with other plant products, for a variety of medicinal treatments for the eyes and for the stomach and digestive tract.
Food Uses: Fruits important food for virtually all coastal peoples. Eaten fresh or stored under water and oil, in cedarwood storage boxes.
Toxicity: Bark contains cyanide-producing compounds..
Landscape Uses: Plant near waterways, wetlands, or other moist sites. Very salt-tolerant.
- Brockman, F.C. 1968. A Guide to Field Identification: Trees of North America. Western Publishing Company. Page .
- Guard, B.J. 1995. Wetland Plants of Oregon & Washington. Lone Pine Publishing. Page 180.
- Hickman, J.C., ed. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Page 962.
- Hitchcock, C.L., A. Cronquist. 1973. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press. Page 222.
- Jacobson A.L. 2001. Wild Plants of Greater Seattle. Published by author. Page 80.
- Link, R. 1999. Landscaping for Wildlife in the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press. Page 248.
- Lyons, C., W. Merilees. Trees and Shrubs to Know in Washington and British Columbia. Lone Pine Publishing. Page 89.
- Pojar, J., A. Mackinnon. 1994. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Lone Pine Publishing. Page 48.
The landscaping and restoration information provided on this page is taken from the Starflower Foundation Image Herbarium. All photographs © Starflower Foundation unless otherwise noted.