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Home > Landscaping > Native Plants for Western Washington Gardens and Restoration Projects


Native Plants that Provide Seeds and Berries

Abies amabilis
Pacific Silver Fir
An attractive conifer with short dark green needles. Tolerant of shade.
Squirrels and other rodents extract seeds from the large cones.
Abies grandis
Grand Fir
Abies grandis is a tall, straight tree with short, dense branches.
Grouse, nuthatches, chickadees, grosbeaks, finches, crossbills feed on the fir seeds. Sapsuckers and woodpeckers feed on the foliage. Pine white butterfly larvae eat the leaves.
Acer circinatum
Vine Maple
Tall, erect, multi-trunked shrub or small tree with sprawling branches.
Birds that eat the seeds include grosbeaks, woodpeckers, nuthatches, finches, quail, and grouse. A larvae plant for the brown tissue moth and the Polyphemus moth. A good nectar source for bees. Deer, mountain beavers, and other beavers eat the twigs and wood.
Acer macrophyllum
Big-leaf Maple
A tree with a large, often multi-stemmed trunk and a loose, broad crown of large leaves.
The rotting limbs provide a food source for insect-eating birds such as grouse, grosbeaks, kinglets, siskins, vireos, warblers, sapsuckers, woodpeckers, nuthatches, song sparrows, finches, and quail. Acer macrophyllum is a good nectar source for swallowtail butterfly larvae and bees. Deer, muskrats, and beaver eat the wood and twigs.
Achillea millefolium
Yarrow
Aromatic herb with delicate fern-like leaves and flat-topped clusters of white flowers.
Arbutus menziesii
Madrone
An attractive broadleaf evergreen with a twisting reddish trunk and irregular branches with an overall rounded outline.
The fruit is eaten by band-tailed pigeons, quail, flickers, varied thrushes, waxwings, evening grosbeaks, mourning doves, and robins. The flowers are pollinated by spring azure butterflies and bees. Madrone is a larval plant for the ceanothus silk moth and the brown elfin butterfly. The fruit is eaten by raccoons and other mammals.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Kinnikinnick, Bearberry
A mat-forming evergreen shrub producing lovely pink flowers that later turn into red berries.
The berries are consumed by ruffed grouse, band-tailed pigeons, evening grosbeaks, sparrows, and other ground-feeding birds. The flowers attract bees and brown elfin butterflies. The berries are browsed by bears, foxes, and coyotes. The twigs are browsed by deer.
Betula papyrifera
Paper Birch
A small to medium sized deciduous tree with attractive white, peeling papery bark.
The seeds are eaten on and under the trees by juncos, finches, siskins, sparrows, and grouse. Kinglets, woodpeckers, sapsuckers, warblers, nuthatches and chickadees prey on the insects that commonly use the paper birch as habitat. The leaves are eaten by mourning cloak and swallowtail butterfly larvae. Beavers, hares, chipmunks, deer, and elk browse on the leaves and twigs.
Cornus nuttallii
Western Flowering Dogwood
Multi-branched, irregular trees with attractive large white "flowers".
Birds that eat the berries include sapsuckers, woodpeckers, bluebirds, tree swallows, vireos, thrushes, evening grosbeaks, white-crowned sparrows, song sparrows, towhees, grouse, jays, and house finches. The flowers may be eaten by spring azure butterfly larvae.
Cornus stolonifera
Red-osier Dogwood
Spreading, thicket-forming shrub with bright red stems.
The berries are eaten by birds such as vireos, warblers, kingbirds, robins, flickers, flycatchers, wood ducks, grouse, band-tailed pigeons, and quail. The nectar is used by orange sulphur and other adult butterflies. The leaves are used by spring azure and other butterfly larvae. The berries are eaten by mammals such as bears, foxes, skunks, and chipmunks. The wood is browsed by deer, elk, and rabbits.
Corylus cornuta
Beaked Hazelnut
Slender, multi-trunked deciduous shrub.
The nuts are often eaten by Stellars Jays, even before they are ripe. The nuts are eaten by squirrels, chipmunks, raccoons, and red foxes. Rabbits and beavers eat the wood.
Crataegus douglasii
black hawthorn
large shrub or small tree with clusters of white flowers and dark purplish-black berries.
Bird species that eat the berries include solitaires, robins, waxwings, grosbeaks, thrushes, woodpeckers, band-tailed pigeons, wood ducks, grouse, pheasants, and turkeys. The leaves provide food for swallowtail butterfly larvae. Mammals that eat the berries include black bears, coyotes, and foxes. Rabbits and deer browse the twigs. The black hawthorn is resistant to beaver damage.
Fragaria chiloensis
Coastal Strawberry
Spreads low across ground with runners. White flowers and small red strawberries.
Robins, towhees, pine grosbeaks, waxwings, and grouse eat the fruit. Sara orangetip butterflies are attracted by the flowers. Deer feed on the berries. Fruit eaten by mice and other small mammals.
Fragaria vesca
Woodland strawberry
A wild strawberry with thin leaves, low, short runners, white flowers, and small red strawberries.
Robins, towhees, pine grosbeaks, waxwings, and grouse eat the fruit. Sara orangetip butterflies are attracted by the flowers. Fruit eaten by mice and other small mammals.
Fragaria virginiana
Wild strawberry
Low growing wild strawberry with runners, white flowers, and small red strawberries.
Robins, towhees, pine grosbeaks, waxwings, and grouse eat the fruit. Sara orangetip butterflies are attracted by the flowers. Fruit eaten by mice and other small mammals.
Fraxinus latifolia
Oregon Ash
Tough-wooded tree with gray bark and compound leaflets arranged oppositely around twigs.
The seeds are eaten by grosbeaks, wood ducks, finches, grouse, and others. Leaves eaten by butterfly larvae. Beavers use wood for dams, twigs and leaves are eaten by deer and elk.
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
Creeping to erect shrub with hairy branching stems and dark leathery leaves.
Grouse, band-tailed pigeons, towhees, and other ground-feeding birds. Brown elfin butterfly larvae eat the twigs. Bear, foxes, coyotes, and other smaller mammals eat the berries. Deer and elk eat the twigs.
Glyceria elata
Tall Mannagrass, Fowl Mannagrass
Tall wetland grass.
Food for waterfowl. Food for muskrats and deer.
Glyceria grandis
Reed Mannagrass
very similar to G. elata
Food for waterfowl. Food for muskrats and deer.
Lonicera ciliosa
Orange Honeysuckle
Climbing vine with clusters of tubular bright orange flowers.
Fruit eaten by grouse, pheasants, flickers, robins, thrushes, bluebirds, waxwings, grosbeaks, finches, and juncos. Hummingbirds visit the flowers.
Lonicera hispidula
Hairy Honeysuckle
Clamboring vine with clusters of light purple tubular flowers.
Fruit eaten by grouse, pheasants, flickers, robins, thrushes, bluebirds, waxwings, grosbeaks, finches, and juncos.
Lonicera involucrata
Twinberry
Tall shrub with opposite leaves and pairs of small yellow flowers in leaf axils.
Flowers provide nectar for hummingbirds. Berries are eaten by various birds.
Lupinus polyphyllus
Large-leaved Lupine
A large perennial native forb with spikes of blue flowers from one to many hairy stems.
Seeds valuable food for game and song birds. Silvery blue and other butterfly species use the flowers and vegetation. Small mammals eat the seeds.
Mahonia nervosa
Dull Oregon Grape
Low-growing creeping shrub with dark green holly-like leaves and slender spikes of yellow flowers.
Birds eat the berries. Mammals eat the berries.
Maianthemum racemosum
False Solomon's Seal
Birds eat the berries.
Maianthemum stellatum
Starflowered False Solomon's Seal
Birds eat the berries.
Malus fusca
Pacific Crabapple
Small tree, slender in form, appears thorny; bushy in the open.
Fruit remaining on trees in winter is a preferred food of purple finches. Also evening grosbeaks, towhees, sapsuckers, woodpeckers, waxwings and grouse. Spring azure butterfly. Favorite food of deer, elk and bears. Also coyotes, foxes.
Myrica californica
Pacific Wax Myrtle
Tall shrub with small evergreen leaves.
Birds eat the fruits.
Oemleria cerasiformis
Indian Plum, Osoberry
Deciduous shrub producing clusters of white flowers in very early spring. One of the earliest plants to bloom.
The berries are eaten by waxwings, robins, and other birds. Annas hummingbirds use the nectar in lowland areas. Foxes, coyotes, deer and bear eat the berries.
Oplopanax horridus
Devil's Club
An erect to sprawling shrub with thick, spiny, crooked stems and very large leaves.
Leaves are eaten by slugs. Berries are eaten by bears.
Prunus emarginata var. mollis
Bitter Cherry
Shrub or small tree with white flowers and small red cherries.
Many birds eat the cherries. Flowers attract Sara orangetip, silvery blue, swallowtail, Lorquins admiral, and spring azure butterflies. Fruit eaten by squirrels, foxes, black bears, coyotes, chipmunks and raccoons. Deer and elk browse the leaves and twigs.
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Douglas fir
Large coniferous tree with thick, fluted bark.
Birds that eat the seeds include grouse, crosbills, siskins, and many others. Chickadees, nuthatches, brown creepers, and woodpeckers find insects in the trunk, branches, and twigs. Foliage is eaten by pine white butterfly larvae, silver-spotted tiger moth larvae, and numerous other moths. Squirrels and chipmunks eat the seeds. The foliage and twigs are browsed by beavers, porcupines, deer, and elk.
Rhamnus purshiana
Cascara
Erect, tall shrub or small tree with alternate leaves and inconspicuous flower clusters.
Berries are eaten by grosbeaks, woodpeckers, grouse, band-tailed pigeons, mourning doves, jays, robins, and tanagers. It also attracts many insectivorous birds, including bushtits, kinglets, chickadees, flycatchers, and nuthatches. Leaves and other plant parts are eaten by swallowtail, gray hairstreak, and other butterfly larvae. Black bears, foxes, coyotes, and raccoons eat the fruit.
Ribes sanguineum
Red Flowering Currant
Erect, multi-stemmed shrub with showy clusters of deep pink flowers in early spring.
The berries are eaten by grouse, pheasants, robins, towhees, thrushes, waxwings, sparrows, jays, and woodpeckers. Several hummingbirds consume the nectar. The foliage is eaten by zephyr and other butterfly larvae. The fruits is eaten by coyotes, foxes, mountain beavers, raccoons, skunks, squirrels, and chipmunks. The twigs and foliage are browsed by deer and elk.
Rosa nutkana
Nootka Rose
Spindly shrub with a pair of prickles at the base of each leaf and large pink rose flowers.
Several bird species eat the hips including grouse, bluebirds, juncos, grosbeaks, quail, pheasants, and thrushes. The seeds are using by birds as a source of grit. The leaves are eaten by mourning cloak butterfly larvae. The leaves are used by the leaf-cutter bee. Young rose shoots are popular with aphids which in turn provide food for a wide range of predators including ladybugs and songbirds. Mammals that eat the hips include chipmunks, rabbits, hares, porcupines, coyotes, deer, elk, and bear.
Rubus parviflorus
Thimbleberry
Unarmed spreading shrub with large white flowers. Usually forms dense thickets.
The berries are eaten by finches, wrens, jays, bushtits, and quail. Coyotes, foxes, and bears browse the foliage and the berries.
Rubus spectabilis
Salmonberry
Erect and branching shrub with early spring pink flowers and reddish-orange raspberry-like fruits.
Fruits eaten by grouse, pheasants, robins, orioles, thrushes, tanagers, finches, wrens, bushtits, quail, and towhees. One of the first blooming plants visited by hummingbirds. Food for bumblebees. Fruit eaten by raccoons, chipmunks, and squirrels
Rubus ursinus
Trailing Blackberry
Trailing prickly vine producing small blackberries in late summer.
Fruits great for small mammals because they are close to the ground. Bears and deer also seek them out.
Sambucus racemosa
Red Elderberry
Shrub to small tree with clusters of small white flowers and red berries.
Fruits eaten by many birds - sparrows, thrushes, warblers, bluebirds, jays, tanagers, grosbeaks, sapsuckers, woodpeckers, and band-tailed pigeons. Nectar eaten by bumblebees and butterflies. Fruits eaten by small mammals. Foliage and twigs are consumed by browsers - deer and elk.
Solidago canadensis
Canada Goldenrod
Forms patches from long creeping rhizomes. Stems leafy and hairy near the top, with a dense cluster of small yellow flowers.
The seeds of goldenrod are eaten by numerous bird species. The bright, showy flowers attract bumblebees and pine white, red admiral, and mylitta crescent butterflies. Syrphid flies and small wasps also frequently visit the goldenrod flowers.
Thuja plicata
Western Red Cedar
Large conifer with branches that droop and then turn back up (J-shaped), broad crowns.
Birds that eat the winged seeds include grosbeaks, sparrows, waxwings, nuthatches, and siskins. Deer and elk browse on the twigs and foliage.
Tsuga mertensiana
Mountain Hemlock
Slow growing evergreen conifer.
Seeds are eaten by birds. Chipmunks and squirrels eat the seeds.
Vaccinium ovatum
Evergreen huckleberry
Bushy shrub with small shiny green evergreen leaves and small clusters of pink bell-shaped flowers.
Birds eat the berries. Bees and hummingbirds are attracted to the flowers.
Vaccinium parvifolium
Red Huckleberry
Delicately branched shrub with small red huckleberries, suitable for shady areas on decaying wood.
Birds eat the berries. Butterflies use the flowers for nectar. Mammals use the berries for food.
Vancouveria hexandra
Inside-out Flower
Rhizomatous perennial with small white flowers and delicate leaves.
Viburnum edule
High Bush Cranberry
Shrub with bright red berries and brilliant fall foliage.
Birds eat the berries. Butterflies visit the flowers. Mammals eat the berries.


The landscaping and restoration information provided on this page is taken from the Starflower Foundation Image Herbarium. All photographs © Starflower Foundation unless otherwise noted.